The Burning Mountain: Inside Chile’s Massive Clothes Dump

A devastating fire at one of the world’s largest clothes dumps in Chile’s Atacama Desert highlights the urgent need for action on textile waste.

In June 2022, a massive fire broke out at El Paso de la Mula, a mountain of discarded clothing in Chile’s Atacama Desert. The fire, which consumed more than half of the clothes pile, sent toxic smoke billowing into the air, posing a significant threat to the environment and human health. This incident shed light on the urgent need to address the growing problem of textile waste, particularly in countries like Chile, where the importation of used clothing has skyrocketed in recent years. This article delves into the causes and consequences of the fire, explores the complex web of stakeholders involved, and examines potential solutions to the mounting crisis.

The Rise of Chile’s Used Clothing Industry

Chile has become the largest importer of secondhand clothing in South America, with estimates suggesting that between 60,000 and 44 million tons of clothing pass through the port of Iquique each year. The country’s tax-free zones, such as the Free Trade Zone in Iquique, have incentivized the booming industry of used textiles. However, the influx of discarded garments has led to the proliferation of unregulated clothes dumps, exacerbating the environmental and social issues associated with textile waste.

The Devastating Impact of the Fire

The fire at El Paso de la Mula was a catastrophic event that highlighted the magnitude of the textile waste problem in Chile. The clothes pile, estimated to weigh between 11,000 and 59,000 tons, was a ticking time bomb due to the dry conditions of the Atacama Desert and the nonbiodegradable nature of most modern clothing. The fire released toxic fumes into the air, posing a threat to the health of nearby communities and exacerbating air pollution in the region. The incident also raised concerns about the lack of regulation and oversight in the disposal of textile waste.

The Fight for Accountability and Solutions

Environmental lawyer Paulin Silva has been at the forefront of the battle to hold the government and municipalities accountable for the unregulated clothes dumps. Silva filed a lawsuit against the municipality and the federal Chilean government for their inaction over the issue. However, her efforts have faced significant challenges, including the difficulty of obtaining admissible evidence and the lack of support from other stakeholders. Despite these obstacles, Silva remains determined to push for change and raise awareness about the environmental and health risks associated with textile waste.

The Need for Comprehensive Solutions

Addressing the textile waste crisis requires a multifaceted approach that involves all stakeholders, from consumers to manufacturers and policymakers. The extended producer responsibility law, which holds producers accountable for their waste, is a step in the right direction. However, critics argue that the law lacks enforcement mechanisms and fails to address the issue of used clothing. The Ministry of the Environment is also developing a circular economy strategy for textile waste, but more needs to be done to regulate the entry of textile materials into Chile, educate consumers about sustainable fashion practices, and support research into new uses for fabric waste.

Entrepreneurs and Innovators Take Action

Despite the challenges, there are entrepreneurs and innovators working on finding solutions to the textile waste problem. Companies like Ecocitex and Procitex have experimented with recycling and repurposing used clothing, but profitability remains a challenge. Other initiatives, such as FabScrap in New York City, have focused on diverting textile waste from landfills and repurposing it for other industries. These efforts highlight the potential for circular economy models and the importance of supporting businesses that prioritize sustainability.


The devastating fire at El Paso de la Mula in Chile’s Atacama Desert serves as a stark reminder of the urgent need to address the growing problem of textile waste. The incident has exposed the environmental and health risks associated with unregulated clothes dumps and highlighted the lack of accountability in the industry. While there are no easy solutions, it is clear that a comprehensive approach involving all stakeholders is necessary. By holding producers accountable, educating consumers, and supporting innovative solutions, Chile and other countries can begin to tackle the textile waste crisis and move towards a more sustainable future.

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